BTM Participant Information
We are now in our 18th deployment of the Bermuda Testbed Mooring. This
notice is intended to provide information to potential participants. If you
would like to deploy instruments from the mooring, we will need some basic
background information such as:
1) Type of instrumentation and application,
Decisions concerning proposed usage and fees will be
based on discussions of the ad hoc Bermuda Testbed Mooring Committee and sponsoring agency
representatives. However, as a guideline, fees will likely be at a level
of roughly $2,500/deployment or $5,000/year paid in advance of deployment.
Users must cover shipping costs of intrumentation to and from Bermuda. The
Bermuda Testbed Mooring program cannot assume responsibility for damaged or lost
instrumentation. We encourage new users to participate on their initial
deployment cruise. Questions concerning mounting of instruments on mooring
and use of complementary data sets should be directed to the chairman of
the ad hoc Bermuda Testbed Mooring Committee.
2) Sponsoring agency or company,
3) Specifications such as size and wet weight,
4) Desired depth(s) or location(s) on surface buoy,
5) Attachment information (e.g., attach directly to mooring cable or place instruments in load cages in-line),
6) Special deployment considerations (e.g., winches or booms needed),
7) Projected time period(s) when you would like to deploy,
8) Need for near real-time telemetry, and
9) Any other information which you feel may be useful.
Please see the announcement below for more information relevant to
the Bermuda Testbed Mooring program. I expect that more specific
questions will arise after reading this, so please contact me by email
or phone and I will attempt to help.
Tommy D. Dickey
Chairman, Adhoc Bermuda Testbed Mooring Committee
Announcement of Opportunity to Participate in the Bermuda Testbed Mooring Program
The Bermuda Testbed Mooring Program was initiated at a site near Bermuda in
1994 by the National Science Foundation (NSF, Oceanographic Technology and
Interdisciplinary Coordination Program), the Office of Naval Research (ONR),
and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The location is
near the site of the ongoing Joint Global Ocean Flux Study's (JGOFS) Bermuda
Atlantic Time Series (BATS) station, 80 km southeast of Bermuda (31o 45' N, 64o
10' W). One of the primary purposes of the program is to provide the
oceanographic community with a common testbed for the testing of sensors,
analyzers, and systems which may be deployed from various oceanographic
platforms and to facilitate the interpretation of resulting data. The
deep-water testbed mooring, known as the Bermuda Testbed Mooring (BTM), has
several advantages as described below. One of these is the capability of
capturing episodic, extreme events such as hurricanes and eddies.
Several national and international global change programs involve long-term
measurements of ocean variables. The success of these programs, as well as
many individual research projects, depends on the development and application
of relevant technologies which are crucial to improved observational
databases. During the past decade, new physical, optical, acoustical, and
chemical sensors, analyzers, and systems have greatly expanded the number of
pertinent interdisciplinary variables and their ranges of temporal and spatial
observation. While considerable progress has been made, some efforts have been
hampered by the lack of a dedicated deep-water platform for the testing of
sensors and systems and the interpretation of their resultant signals.
One of the original objectives of our program has been to establish a testbed
mooring program which serves the oceanographic community's needs in this area.
Although a mooring has been selected as the platform for this work, it should
be emphasized that many of the sensors and systems of interest will likely be
used on drifters, ROV's and AUV's in the future as well.
Some advantages of the BATS site include:
1. A rich historical database is already available for the area because of the
40-year Hydrostation S program and the more recent nearby JGOFS BATS activity.
A special edition of Deep-Sea Research [Deep-Sea Research II, 43, nos. 2-3,
1996; eds. D.M Karl and A.F. Michaels] concerns the BATS and companion Hawaii
Ocean Time-Series (HOT) programs.
2. The BATS program has an ongoing time series sampling program (usually 16
cruises each year) with a relatively complete suite of physical, chemical,
biological, and optical variables (see BIOS website: http://www.bios.edu). A
sediment trap mooring with a 20-year continuous record is deployed nearby the
site as well (contact Maureen Conte and Werner Deuser, WHOI). Ongoing
atmospheric sampling programs at various sites on the island of Bermuda (e.g.,
AEROCE: contact Hal Maring, U. Miami) provide a 16-year record of atmospheric
properties, trace gas concentrations, atmospheric deposition, and an expanding
suite of atmospheric optical measurements.
3. Local-area coverage remote sensing data (AVHRR, weather images, and SeaWiFS
images) are available for the site through an HRPT station (contact Norm
Nelson, BIOS) in Bermuda sponsored by NASA, thus providing complementary
satellite measurements for testing programs. Shipboard bio-optical profile
measurements are also made near the mooring site as part of a special NASA
project (contact Dave Siegel, UCSB).
4. The R/V Weatherbird II, a 115 foot UNOLS research vessel with a large open
fantail and an oversized stern A-frame is available to conduct routine
time-series studies, service the moorings, and conduct specialized cruises
(contact Lee Black, BIOS). The repeat occupations of the testbed site as part
of the existing programs also enable cost-effective ancillary uses of the ship
alongside the ongoing programs. The proximity of the ship can also prove
valuable for responding to unexpected events such as sensor validation during
unusual conditions or equipment failure.
5. The site is quite accessible as open ocean waters of nominal depth of 4554
m are within a 5-hour steam from land. Excellent laboratory facilities and
support are available at BIOS.
6. There is a documented need for high temporal resolution mooring data at the
site because of undersampling and aliasing. Already, many of the important
emerging bio-optical and acoustical systems are designed to be deployed from
moored systems capable of sampling at rates of once every few minutes. Also,
the general region is of high ecological importance and interest.
Presently, interdisciplinary mooring studies are being conducted at the site
by a team of scientists from several institutions. Some of
the past deployments have utilized special near real-time telemetry.
Turn-around deployments are done at approximately six-month intervals to
allow replacement and maintenance of sensors and systems.
With this announcement, we solicit inquiries concerning participation in the
Bermuda Testbed Mooring program and encourage its use to test and validate new
sensors and systems and experimental approaches. Interested investigators
should direct their instrumentation proposals to agency representatives
following usual proposal procedures and indicate their intent to use the
Bermuda testbed mooring. The testbed mooring is available to commercial
instrument companies as well as academic researchers. Companies and
researchers are responsible for logistical costs associated with the
deployment and recovery of their instruments and some fees are required for
A committee facilitates interactions among the oceanographic community and the
participating agencies and institutions and reviews the feasibility of
proposed projects for testbed mooring deployments. Individuals and
organizations interested in participating in the Bermuda Testbed Mooring
program should visit our web site (http://www.opl.ucsb.edu) and
are encouraged to contact the BTM Committee chairman, Tommy D. Dickey, via
email or at the address given below.
Ocean Physics Laboratory/University of California, Santa Barbara
6487 Calle Real Suite A
Goleta, CA 93117
Tel: 805 893-7354
Fax: 805 967-5704